In recent years, alternative sources of energy have been gaining more and more allies from among ordinary citizens. Especially popular are solar panels (batteries). This technology is several decades old – they have been use in space since the 1960s and in American homes as an alternative source of heating.
In this article, we will consider the installation of solar panels on the roof surface, the sequence and method of installation in stages.
Each house is unique, it is located in a certain area and this should be take into account when installing solar panels. For example, with a dark color of the roof of the house you need to use a light coating. A good option will be a light-colored hydrobaryar, as it will protect the roof from moisture and prevent overheating of the photocell. The angle of installation of the panels should be 30 degrees.
First, on the roof it is necessary to make a marking for the pillars. It is worth paying attention to the fact that the racks must be place parallel to each other at a distance of 100-120 centimeters. Brackets are attach to the roof surface. Anchor-wedge (otherwise – dowel) 6×65.
The installation of this element is quite simple: first, you need to drill a hole, then put lubricant (solidol or similar compounds) in it, put the anchor and drive. This method fixes properly, because the anchor is also use for mounting frames, rails, metal profiles to concrete, stone and brick, and hence this load can withstand without problems. Directly, the anchor should be fixe to the roof support posts, on which metal-tiles were previously mounted. In the case where the roof is made of concrete, the installation is much simpler – just install the anchor at a distance of one meter from each other. You can use a dowel 8×65.
It is possible to use a ruberoid based on fiberglass, which has the following qualities:
- low weight;
- possibility of application on roofs of different shapes and with different angles.
It is important to remember one important rule: installation work is carry out in warm and dry weather.
In addition, you should pay attention to the fact that the surface must be prepared. First, it should be carefully clean of debris. The roof should be flat and pre-greased (you can apply for this purpose White Spirit, for example). Before starting the installation, it is necessary to prime the entire area.
Then on the bracket, you need to put a heated roofing felt, so that it protrudes beyond the edges of the part by at least 5 centimeters. Let it cool down a bit and only after that, you can continue to work.
The rack is attach to the bracket. It is better to use a zinc profile of hot galvanizing with a coating thickness of 70-150 μm. This approach prevents corrosion and guarantees a service life of about 25 years. In order to avoid corrosion of fasteners, it is better to choose aluminum.
After installing the main structure, you can proceed to install the cable part of the solar panels.
The DC cable should be lay under the metal structure. Cables serve as the connection of all solar panels with the subsequent output to the switch and inverter. The wires are secure to the rear side of the profile by plastic clips for easy installation and avoidance of the external environment.
The solar panel itself is attach to the galvanized profile of the “LS-PROFI” type, which persistently tolerates the vagaries of the environment and does not lend itself to corrosion, which is extremely important for this process.
The profile is fasten with a bracket, one side to the rail, and the other to the roof. All connections must be mounted with galvanized bolts (M8 or similar) using a drill or perforator.
It should be noted that when connecting, do not rush. Mount the profiles together with a nut and bolt M8, while creating a strong and reliable connection.
Then clamps used to hold the panel itself. The clamp is mount on the profile with RAL8017 4.8X35 roofing screws – they guarantee reliable connection with simple installation. Mount it on two self-tapping screws, 20 mm apart.
According to this project, DC cables go to the transformer substation. Installation of the transformer substation is carry out in the following way: the substation is fix to the wall of the house with a dowel of at least 100 mm and a diameter of at least 10 mm for reliable coupling. For this purpose, a perforator with a power of at least 1200 watts is required. To connect to a common power grid, an electric cable of 10 kW is use, which is immediately supply to the city power line.
Installation of solar panels according to the above describe method is carried out according to an algorithm that makes it possible to minimize the time spent, money and energy losses in the future.
A detailed, but more concise algorithm for mounting the solar panel:
1) brackets for mounting to the roof are installed in the side groove of the profile;
2) choose the location and mount the bracket to the roof (with a distance of not more than 1.5 m in the center two at the edges);
3) profile adjustment is carried out, as with improper adjustment, mechanical pressure will appear, which will lead to the failure of the batteries. Ideally, one plane must be maintain.
4) the clamp is mounted (one double-sided pressing on the center and two end clamps on both sides);
5) then the panels are placed and fixed by the clamps.
It should be note that the future of our planet is behind the solar panels. The great business of promoting our country along the path of energy independence begins with each of us. Installation of solar panels saves money and protects the environment around us.