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Куц Тина

All the most important thing about inverters for SES. Part one


Photoelectric inverter – the very heart of the installation

As we already mentioned, the solar energy converter is responsible for converting the energy from photovoltaic modules to alternating current with parameters identical to those found in a low-voltage power network, that is, 230/400 V 50 Hz. However, this is not all. An additional task of this device is to manage the process and collect statistics on energy production. One of the elements in this system is that devices track the maximum units of the work point, MPPT. The service life of a solar inverter is less than that of solar panels, which can work up to 25 years. It is assumed that – depending on the model and brand – their service life is from 8 to 12 years. There are microinverters on the market that can be used even up to 25 years.

Network inverter is installed when assembling solar panels. It is usually located near the panels, it is mounted vertically, and its connections are located on the bottom of the device.

Depending on the distance at which it is located, it can lead to a performance loss of up to 5%. This can be slightly compensated by conductors of appropriate quality that can provide less energy loss.

 MPPT – what is it?

The art of assembling a photovoltaic installation suggests that each module that creates a chain of cells must be the same. This means that the combined photovoltaic panels must be of the same manufacturer, have the same nominal power and be of the same type. However, this is not all. Each panel should also have the same location, slope. All these requirements are important because only then can we be sure that the MPPT tracking system will be used optimally.

How does the MPPT system work? In a large simplification, this allows increasing the amount of energy received to a few to ten percent. How does this happen? It is quite simple. Modules available on the market do not have a fixed maximum power point, it is variable and dependent on radiation. This system tracks where such a point is (MPP maximum power point) and adapts to its new value. Because of this, we get higher energy yields. Currently, every modern converter has at least one such system.

Inverter for photovoltaic panels – types

Different types of inverters are available in the market. We will distinguish among them:

– single-phase and three-phase – low power in case of high demand for three-phase solutions are used. However, if you have a single-phase low-power inverter and three-phase low-power inverters, consider the second one, because it can significantly affect the stability of the local network, lead to less voltage fluctuations and also require smaller conductor sections;

– without a transformer and with a transformer – if it is necessary to ground one of the poles of the installation, contact an inverter with a transformer, since it provides galvanic isolation between the constant input voltage and the power supply network. However, if we do not need to use the galvanic isolation provided by the transformer, we can choose transformer solutions that – although they are lighter and smaller – tend to be more expensive due to the protection systems used, but in the long run this is a good choice;

– chain or central-chain converters can work with several series of modules, and are designed for installations with different sizes of lower power. Central inverters are designed for large solar farms and are unlikely to be used at home;

– network inverters – they are divided into two types, depending on whether they are connected to the network or not. The island inverter does not synchronize with the network, so it cannot give it energy, but it is able to charge batteries in case of surplus. The mains inverter allows you to synchronize with the public network, but the batteries cannot be charged.

What determines the efficiency of solar installations?


Solar installation – efficiency on cloudy and hot days

When solar panels deviate from the STC, for example, they are located in a country with too hot a climate or a large cloud cover, efficiency decreases. When purchasing solar panels, we always receive a detailed report on the effectiveness of this panel, depending on the prevailing conditions. An important indicator is Pmax (maximum power point), which answers the question of what kind of efficiency loss is caused by a module temperature rising above 20 ° C.

As a rule, most of the energy from photovoltaic panels is obtained from May to July. The August heat and autumn-winter clouds affect the efficiency of photovoltaic panels.

A well-made solar panel installation will completely cover your annual energy consumption. It is worth investing in an installation that is slightly more than the average housework. For example, if your household consumes 4,000 kW, the recommended installation will produce 4,500 kW.

Orientation of photovoltaic panels

Solar panels work best when installed on a roof that faces south. Roofs facing east and west are also suitable for installation, especially when the roof slope is optimal.

Solar panels installed in the north are strongly discouraged, because in this case the loss of efficiency is huge.

Solar installation – shading

Solar panels produce electricity from the sun. If nearby trees, buildings, or chimneys cast shadows on photovoltaic panels, the probability of generating electricity will fall. It is assumed that the solar panels in the shade can lose up to 20% efficiency.

Due to the fact that the cells on the panel are connected to each other, casting shadows on some of them significantly weakens the operation of the entire device. In turn, one less efficient panel weakens the entire installation.

Ventilation and temperature of photovoltaic panels

Season has a huge impact on the efficiency of photovoltaic panels. In spring and summer, the days are longer, and the panels work for many hours during the day.

Despite this, solar panels work more efficiently on a sunny winter day when the temperature is 10 ° C than on a hot 30-degree summer day. The reason is simple – high temperatures cause the electronic components to heat up, which leads to a loss of their efficiency. This can be easily compared with a laptop that slows down when overheated.

When buying solar panels, it is advisable to choose panels with a low Pmax value. Another thing to pay attention to is the installation location – ventilation is a key factor, and its absence can lead to a loss of efficiency.

Roofs facing south, southwest, and southeast, with a gradient of 20 to 60 degrees, are ideal for solar panels. Photovoltaic panels achieve maximum efficiency on them.

Photovoltaic panels have high efficiency on a flat roof only if they use special frames that are ideal for modules. Panels placed horizontally on the ground receive about 90%, and on the rack 100% efficiency. There is absolutely no need to lose this energy, and a support structure should be used.

DustIQ system will help investors in cleaning solar panels


The omnipresent dust accumulates on photocells and reduces their efficiency. This worries both owners of huge photovoltaic power plants and private owners of solar cells.

In extreme conditions (heavy pollution, no precipitation, many months without cleaning), the loss of productivity can reach 20%. Of course, no investor can afford such losses and regularly clears installations. Taking care of the cleanliness of the panels is easier in the case of a power station that has ground installations and related services. For private owners with roof panels, every time you clean a solar installation, you need to hire a professional company or go to the roof yourself, which is associated with danger. In practice, the installation is usually cleaned twice a year. Unfortunately, this is not very accurate, and it is difficult to determine when the optimal time for this operation has come. Why?

Well, the dust depends on the circumstances. In some months the panels get dirty more than others. Some places are also more prone to dirt, while others are less. Emissions are a problem in large cities. In rural areas, dust from the fields, especially during harvest. In turn, the rain to some extent cleans the panel. Therefore, the best solution would be to measure the degree of contamination.

The Dutch company Kipp & Zonen recently developed the DustIQ system, which is designed to accurately measure the pollution of photovoltaic panels.

The system consists of small measuring panels that must be installed in parallel with photovoltaic panels. They consist of a polycrystalline cell and two sensors covered with a glass panel, identical to the one that covers the photovoltaic panels.

When light falls through clear glass, its rays are parallel to each other. Dust, however, scatters light. Sensors measure how much incoming light is scattered, and on this basis calculate the pollution of the installation. The result does not depend on the amount of solar radiation, therefore, according to the manufacturer’s assurances, weather conditions and the position of the sun in the sky do not affect the readings.

Studies show that dirt falling on panels in different parts of the world diffuses light differently and affects the efficiency of panels. Therefore, DustIQ can be calibrated for pollution in a specific area.

So far, the system is primarily interested in large power plants, which, thanks to this system, can concentrate on cleaning panels in more polluted areas of photovoltaic fields. However, it is possible that in a few years this system will become the standard at home.

Oligarchs kill SES owners


Not so long ago the state began to actively support the formation of alternative energy. The only question is: who really wins it – oligarchs or ordinary citizens?

The Verkhovna Rada of April 25, 2007 approved the Law abolishing the “green” tariff. The bill specifically touched those who have already built land-based solar power stations of up to 30 kW.

It should be noted that the change in the scheme of organization of measures to support alternative energy in Ukraine began to be actively considered two years ago. The central idea was to reduce the “green” tariff for large solar power plants and wind farms. In addition, it was discussed the possibility of transferring stations to work in competitive auctions.

Such new solutions have become more in demand because of the preferential tariff situation. The fact is that the “green” tariff in our country – one of the highest among European countries on an industrial scale. Alternative energy brought the country 2 percent of electricity in the overall energy balance, and needed 8 percent of the money from the energy market revenue. At a national scale, it is about 16 billion hryvnia only last year.

Only the conclusion of the debate on this issue was the maintenance of a very high “green” tariff for large industrial plants by the end of next year.

In addition, the Law says that stations that will continue to operate by the end of 2020 can count on fixing a high tariff for as long as ten years. In the case of specific projects signed with the energy market agreements, they have the opportunity to connect a high “green” tariff and for stations built after 2020.

Now consider the situation with the terrestrial home SES. Deputies adopted an amendment that completely abolished the “green” tariff. With the adoption of this Act, owners of domestic solar power plants are obliged to give the generated electricity in the general network absolutely free of charge.

The law will give its first detrimental results for SES owners in the next quarter, when NKREKP indexes the rate at the rate of the European currency.

Solar stations, which have panels for the land, will already be taken into account in the tariffs will not be.

MPs consider illegal enrichment of SES owners as one of the main arguments for the adoption of this bill. According to Minister Nasalik, Ukrainians sell energy not only from their own sites, but also they are engaged in installing panels on empty sites than violate the law.

Only from Mr. Minister did not take into account the moment that, according to the law, adjoining adjacent areas is prohibited. All manipulations on these issues are carried out by Oblenergo employees, concerning the arbitrariness of which we have published material on several occasions. It is clear that bypassing the Oblenergo it is impossible to connect any household to the “green” targe. But instead of putting in order in the valiant ranks of Oblenergo employees, who regularly complain of citizens, deputies decided to punish honest citizens, which in this matter 95%.

The sensitive issue regarding the abolition of the “green” tariff was not thoroughly considered. Petro Poroshenko signed this law, which secured the oligarchs the right to earn a super-high tariff, and Ukrainians, with their humiliating salaries and pensions, left the least hope for earning money from alternative energy.

Andrew Gerus, on his Facebook page, commented on this decision: “From the next quarter, such small home-based SES will release their e-mail for free. And large SES Akhmetov and another “elite” will sell the same electricity at the grid for 5 hryvnias for a kilowatt-hour, for them a super-high green tariff will work further. “

True and myths about the operation and usability of heat pumps


There are many opinions on the topic of heat pumps, some of them are myths. Below we look at some of them.

Big cost of buying and assembling a heat pump. This is not the case because the cost is similar to other heating installations. The whole installation for a large house should be a bit more expensive than the cost of a gas installation for the same house size. Just filling the oil in the gas system costs extra money. However, when comparing the subsequent costs of using all these installations, heat pumps are the most economical.

Heat pumps consume a lot of electricity. In principle, the current is accepted only by the pump compressor, which runs for the time programmed by us, and not all the time during the day. Compressor operation can be configured so that it works only at night, at the cheapest rates, which will further save.

Well for the pump is not always needed. It all depends on the type of pump you want in your home. We can choose between groundwater and water pumps, which differ slightly in their performance and properties. Ground pumps usually require a well, although not always, because it is now possible to place the probe at a depth of 130 meters.

Pumps can interact with other systems. Yes, pumps are designed in such a way that they can easily interact with another system, which, however, should be considered as an additional emergency element, since the pump itself must cover all the need for heating. However, if the need arises, the pumps work well in combination with other heating schemes.

Heat pump requires a lot of space. If we choose a compact version of the modular pump, it will not take up much space and will be aesthetically well-located.

In Ukraine, heating systems with a heat pump are not yet very popular, in contrast to Western Europe, where such solutions have been spread over the years. In our country, all the barriers and unwillingness to invest in such heating systems are due to the conviction that it is very expensive and unprofitable in the future. Let’s take a closer look at all this. Before we decide to buy a heat pump, let’s calculate all the long-term costs that we expect for individual heating systems.

Let’s look at the current prices for fuel oil, gas or coal and the prospects for using this type of fuel in the future. Mineral deposits are depleting, gas and oil prices are constantly increasing, so aren’t pumps the best solution for the future? Heat pumps use up to 75% of heat from the ground, air, or water, which costs us nothing. Only 25% of the energy is generated by the compressor, and engineers are constantly working on this parameter to reduce it even more. We will achieve the highest efficiency if we obtain a smaller heat difference between the source and the heating unit, which is possible using several methods.

The pump can be configured to work during a certain nightly rate, when electricity costs the least and the accumulated energy will be used during the day. Choosing a good source and setting up the heat pump to work properly are the basic steps you need to take to ensure the best results from the pump. In our country, most users of pumps decide to take energy from the ground, which gives the best performance. Installation of the pump should be carried out by specialists who will ensure its proper operation, any violations can lead to excessive power consumption. The heat pump is currently the safest and most environmentally friendly system.

Renewable energy sources: where to invest? Countries with the highest demand and best conditions


Electricity is used in almost all walks of life. Industry, administration, health care or trade cannot do without electricity; Moreover, each person needs not only at work, but, above all, in his house, in constant access to electricity. Given the ever-growing demand for electricity and aware of the harmfulness of coal-fired power plants, governments of individual countries are increasingly making decisions about investing in renewable energy sources (RES). Which countries were considered the most attractive for this type of investment in the energy sector?

Ernst & Young Global Ltd, one of the four largest financial auditing companies in the world, presented another report, in which the countries most attractive from the point of view of investment in renewable energy were placed.

The attractiveness index, according to which individual countries were ranked, was calculated based on the answers to five questions:

Is there a long-term need for an additional or replaced energy source in the country? If so, does everything really mean that it is a renewable source?

Does the current energy policy support or block the use of renewable sources in this country?

Will new projects receive support in the form of long-term contracts, existing infrastructure and technologies used?

How is the idea of ​​using “green” technologies in this country formed?

Does the macro-stabilization of the state and “climate” of investments in energy investments using renewable energy sources work positively or negatively?

1. China

Although the International Energy Agency reported later this year that 75% of China’s energy needs cover coal-fired power plants, the country is determined to switch to renewable energy sources. So far, he has invested more than 126 billion dollars in it, which is more than in any other country in the world.

The global energy transformation towards renewable energy is gaining momentum, accelerating the development of energy storage and electromobility, and China wants to become a world leader in these areas for the coming decades, says the Institute of Energy Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA).

2. United States

In 2017, 18% of the total energy produced in the United States accounted for renewable sources, which is 3% more than in 2016. This growth was mainly due to the implementation of projects of solar and wind power plants.

The share of the renewable energy sector in electricity production has doubled since 2008. At the same time, the share of coal energy decreased from 48% to 30%. The administration of Donald Trump announced a reduction in funds allocated to renewable energy, but thanks to private commitments, this declaration will not have too much impact on the further development of renewable energy in the United States.

3. Germany

According to the portal smard.de, on May 1 of this year, Electricity production in Germany from renewable sources exceeded domestic demand for electricity. The day was windy, but sunny: in total, it was able to produce 53,987 MWh (before 13:00), while demand reached only 53,768 MWh.

4. India

In India, coal plays the largest role in the energy structure: its share reaches 60%. Prime Minister Narendra Modi, however, plans to increase the share in the structure of energy consumption obtained from renewable sources from 57 GW (May 2017) to 175 GW (end of 2022). Up to 100 GW from photovoltaics.

The European Investment Bank has invested 400 million US dollars in solar energy in India, and the World Bank said that India has some of the best conditions for collecting and using solar energy.

5. Australia

In 2017, the share of renewable energy in the Australian energy mix was 17%, despite the fact that politicians in this country are reluctant to support this method of generating energy. Despite the fact that the government promotes the use of coal, it is estimated that by 2030, 42% of electricity in this country will come from renewable energy sources.

6. France

In France, the production of energy from renewable sources has a very good press, it is also systematically supported by subsequent governments. Currently, a plan is being implemented to increase the capacity of wind power plants to 200%: in 2017, the French can produce 13.76 GW thanks to wind power plants, and in 2023 – almost 40 GW.

In 2017, the power of solar farms was slightly less, but still significant: 8.04 GW.

7. United Kingdom

Imperial College London reported that in 2017 in the UK, 25% of the energy produced was obtained from renewable energy sources: the volume value was 96 TWh. Only 7% of energy production included the use of carbon sources.

The British energy base is mainly based on nuclear power plants, which last year produced 70 TWh of energy.

8. Japan

In Japan, the largest share in the energy structure is occupied by gas power plants – 40%. Coal-fired power plants fill 30% of the mixture, and renewable energy sources, about 15%. By 2030, the Japanese government will increase the share of renewable energy in the mix to about 24%, but the policy on this issue is not consistent.

This is reflected in the market: more than 80 companies engaged in photovoltaics, went bankrupt over the past year in Japan. However, the Prime Minister promises support for energy producers.

9. Netherlands

The Netherlands is currently at the stage of intensive investment in the use of renewable energy sources. According to the agreements reached during the negotiations at the European Union forum, by 2020 they should be 14% in the national energy structure of RES.

The most commonly used investments in the Netherlands include offshore wind and solar power plants.

10. Denmark

Among the Scandinavian countries that have been investing in the development of energy production from renewable sources for years, Denmark is currently the most active participant in this type of activity. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has called Denmark the world leader in decarbonization. Last year, electricity generated by wind power plants accounted for 43.4% of the total energy. In a little over 30 years (in 2050), the Danes will produce energy only using renewable energy sources – or so they promise.

10 most interesting renewable energy sources


Electricity for us – the obvious way to power all the necessary devices: plugged in or working on batteries. It would seem that electricity can be used with almost no restrictions, because it is not limited by resources, because we can always produce more. However, as reality shows, this is not an easy and cheap way; therefore, new and more interesting ways of producing electricity and heat are necessary.

Medusa help medics?

Jellyfish glow in the dark thanks to green fluorescent proteins (GFP). They do not shine on their own. This occurs when the jellyfish are exposed to a different light, from blue to ultraviolet. Scientists from Gothenburg (Sweden) managed to place such proteins on aluminum electrodes: exposure to ultraviolet rays led to the fact that proteins form electrons, thanks to which electrical energy was created in the constructed circuit. Proteins attached to nanorobots can illuminate the inside of the human body, making it easier for doctors to study and work.

Crowd energy

Speaking of the human body – whenever we move, we produce heat energy. Already in the first decade of the 21st century, the Swedish real estate office Jernhusen decided to use it to heat its headquarters. To this end, an installation was launched that captures the heat energy of the users of the nearby main railway station. As Karl Sundholm, the project manager at Jernhusen, explained, about 250,000 people pass through the station every day. People – their very presence, generates heat. But they bring much more by buying food, drinks, newspapers or books.

Heat is captured by a special installation, then the water is heated, which is piped to the offices of Jordhusen and radiators. A similar solution was used in Paris, near the Pompidou railway station, to heat a residential building.

Warm, warm … subway

In 1900, the average temperature in the tunnels of the London Underground (established in 1863) was 14 degrees Celsius, now it has increased by 10 degrees. On hot days, underground transport can be very hot. About 89% of heat is generated as a result of train operation (for example, friction associated with braking), 7% is the heat generated by passengers, and 4% is the influence of auxiliary systems.

Municipal authorities are looking for an efficient way to control this heat energy. This source can have great potential if solutions are implemented that increase energy production.

Exploding lake

The picture shows Lake Nyos, the most dangerous of the three exploding lakes found. Under the bottom of the lake is a natural pocket filled with magma, the source of a large amount of CO 2. Carbon dioxide, which is constantly deposited in the water, poses a huge threat to residents of nearby areas – in the 1980s, released gas led to the death of about 1,700 people. In addition to carbon dioxide in the waters of these lakes there is also methane.

The Government of Rwanda has decided to use Lake Kivu, located in this country. A 3.6 MW power plant was built near the lake. Electric generators are supplied with gases collected from the lake water.

Green energy on the wave

Not only lakes can be used for energy production. Scientists have come up with several ways to produce electricity using the kinetic energy of sea waves.

 Fast driving a car is not just wind in your hair …

… but also in turbines. Turkish company Deveci Tech has created a turbine that can produce electricity due to the impulse generated by the movement of cars.

Coal can be green

Carbon nanotubes are widely used. Currently, they are mainly used for the production of lightweight, but extremely durable materials. However, MIT researchers have found that they can also be used to generate solar energy. They can accumulate 100 times more energy than ordinary solar panels.

Sugar will strengthen engines?

Sugar in the tank is dangerous, but as an energy source it can be excellent. According to scientists from Virginia Tech, sugar will be able to power an electric vehicle battery.

Researchers are working on how to convert sugars to hydrogen, which can be used as fuel for electric vehicles. By mixing sugar with water and 13 strong enzymes, they get three times more hydrogen than using traditional methods.

So when will we fill up with sugar? Not earlier than in 10 years. However, as scientists are encouraging, their discovery can be used much faster in the production of batteries for laptops, mobile phones and other electronic devices.

SMS: the fastest way … energy production

How many SMS messages do we send every day? Is sending an sms the fastest way to communicate using the phone? Perhaps, but not many people know that it would be possible to use the energy that we spend to write a short text, for example, to power the charger.

Alexander Parker came up with a way to transfer this energy: to do this, it is necessary to integrate the piezoelectric layer into the smartphone screen. It allows you to generate electrical potential under the influence of compression or tension.

The advantage of this solution will be the possibility of its wide application: not only in the cells, but also on a much larger scale – in sports halls, sidewalks and on the roads. And cons? Unfortunately, the cost of implementing the solution will be too high in relation to the amount of energy received.

Space lasers

Do we have a chance to get energy from space? Already there is the first idea: both dear and dangerous for our planet. The Green Future portal offered to send a satellite into space, which in optimal conditions (that is, without loss of energy) could collect solar energy that does not penetrate into the atmosphere and transmit it to Earth as a quasi-laser beam. High in orbit, the sun shines all the time, so it will be (almost) an inexhaustible source of energy. Although this proposal should be taken as a joke, perhaps with the development of technology, the NASA space agency will be able to develop solutions that will help astronauts accumulate solar energy.

Agrovoltaika will allow to increase the yield with the help of photovoltaic modules


Agrovoltaika is a relatively new field of agricultural activity. It involves the use of solar panels for agriculture. Installation of modules on arable land makes it possible to organize an irrigation system that has autonomous control. This approach allows you to increase the yield by more than half.

The use of solar energy for the power supply of individual dwellings or street lighting is not new for the citizens of Ukraine for a long time. But as for agrovoltaiki, this direction is still a real wonder with us. This area of ​​activity involves intensive farming, which is very important for Ukraine.

The world practice of using the principles of agrovoltaika dates back to the 80s. It was then that the double use of arable land to generate electricity and grow crops became relevant. Pilot projects for the installation of photovoltaic modules on farm lands were implemented by the Japanese in 2004. At this stage, the field of activity, located at the intersection of alternative energy and agronomy, is gaining momentum in Asia, Italy and Germany.

 Benefits of Agrovoltaic

A group of researchers from Italy came to the conclusion that the increase in the level of the harvest on one of the farms in the suburb of Piacenza was caused by the shading of part of the arable land. This shadow arises from the photovoltaic modules located there. The National Institute for Agricultural Research in France conducted a series of studies on this issue. The conclusion was the same as that of the Italian scientists.

French researchers have chosen a farm in the south of the country as the test object. Installation of solar panels was carried out at a height of 4 meters. The purpose of the study was to determine the optimal shading from the panels, which contributes to higher yields. As it turned out in the process of testing, most of the vegetables and berries give a much greater yield in penumbra conditions. Scientists also noted that 50% shading makes soil evaporation 15-30% lower.

 The advantages of photovoltaic farms include the ability to produce electricity in amounts that exceed the needs of the household / farm. On the territory of Italy were placed 3 pilot projects on agrovoltaika on individual farms. In total, these complexes provided 6.65 megawatts of energy. About 30 percent of this amount of electricity can satisfy the energy needs of nearby facilities. Scientists from China, the United States and India also experimentally confirmed the profitability of photovoltaic modules located on arable land.

Does agrovoltaika have prospects in Ukraine?

At first glance, a system that increases yields and provides the possibility of autonomous water and energy supply is optimal for Ukraine. Only the embodiment of this idea into reality in our country has a number of obstacles. The current legislation of our country prohibits the placement of generating equipment on agricultural land. Such solar parks will not be able to connect to the “green” tariff.

If Ukraine adopted a law on simplifying the process of land acquisition for the purpose of installing energy facilities, this would greatly simplify the situation. The Verkhovna Rada has already considered a similar bill, but the decision in its favor was not taken.

It is worth noting that the development of agrovoltaics in Ukraine is confronted not only by officials, but also by the farmers themselves, who are very reluctant to accept any changes. Agrarians are accustomed to working according to a certain scheme, fixed for years of work, and they do not agree to retreat from it. Most earns on the sale of rapeseed – this is a quick way to enrich. Only progress will not stop. The rapid growth of the population of the planet dictates new conditions. The land should be used as productively as possible to increase yields, and the use of solar panels will allow to supply electricity, both the farm itself and nearby houses.

Tropics in Reykjavik – glass biopulms are planned, and in them attractions for tourists and exotic plant crops


The Icelandic architect decided to make his life more pleasant on the island, and at the same time intensify local tourism. In Reykjavik, it is planned to create glass bioflocks heated by geothermal energy.

Winter in Iceland dominates 9 months of the year. This, as noted by Bloomberg, significantly affects the wider use of antidepressants among the inhabitants of the island and further hinders the cultivation of vegetables and fruits. However, among the advantages of the natural environment of Iceland is a large amount of free land and geothermal energy lying under the surface of the island.

These are the benefits that Hyordis Sigurdardottir, the chief architect of Spor and Sandinn ehf, wants to use. He wants to build three glass domes, the largest of which should reach the size of a football field and will have a total of 6 floors above and below ground. The creator of the project called ALDIN inspired, among other things, the creation of the Gardens by the Bay complex, which is a network of modern greenhouses and coastal parks in Singapore.

WilkinsonEyre, an architectural company that designed Gardens by the Bay, is also one of the investors in the ALDIN project. The other is Arion, one of the largest Icelandic banks. The Hjordis Sigurdardottira project is expected to cost $ 37 million.

Glass biocomposites will be used to grow bananas and other exotic products, as well as to recreate a Mediterranean resort near the Arctic. Located in a park in Reykjavik Aldine will occupy an area of ​​4, 5 thousand square meters. The complex will be divided into three zones with different climates and areas of application. The smallest part, called the agricultural laboratory, will be open to visitors. The other two will be used as tropical and Mediterranean resorts, ready for business meetings and events.

According to Bloomberg, the creator of ALDIN does not hide that he is counting on profits from tourism. The business plan of Sigurdardottira assumes that biopulations should reach 300-400 thousand visitors annually. By comparison, Iceland’s most famous tourist attraction, the Blue Lagoon, attracts 1.3 million tourists a year. The opening of the ALDIN complex was scheduled for 2021.

Recall that in late March, cheap Icelandic airline WOW Air decided to suspend operations, which will affect the tourism capital of the island. Since 2011, the plane of the Icelandic carrier took off from the main airport of Reykjavik to the United States and Europe, including summer in Poland. The main carrier of the islanders, Icelandair, did not decide to buy the failed WOW Air airline.

LucidPipe – free electricity directly from the mains. They already have it in Portland


What are municipal water stations for? In addition to supplying water, they can also produce electricity, as evidenced by a pilot plant used in the Portland city water system. The effect of his work turns out to be surprisingly good.

The solution, called LucidPipe, proposed by Lucid Energy, is to insert special spherical turbines into the main water supply. They were designed to minimize the flow of water. At the same time, a team of four such turbines is capable of continuously supplying energy used in 100 houses.

It is important to note that this is clean energy and, with the exception of the cost of assembling and maintaining turbines, is completely free of charge created on the occasion of local hydraulic structures. At the same time, it does not have energy defects from classical hydroelectric power plants – it does not require the accumulation of water and any negative consequences as a result of the construction of an artificial reservoir.

Due to this, residents will not feel any negative effects of turbine installations. They will appreciate the positive results: four turbines installed on a pipe with a diameter of 107 cm should produce 1,100 MWh per year, which should be enough to supply 150 houses and bring about $ 1 million per year.

It is worth recalling that the project was a promising idea many years ago, and today is a proven solution that saves about $ 2 million.

Free electricity is not for everyone

The energy production system used in Orlando, unfortunately, is not without flaws. The key issue in his case is the shape of the urban area and the possibility of using turbines without significantly reducing the speed of the running water.

When the terrain allows the use of waterworks, in which the flow of water is caused by gravity, and the fall is so great that the turbines do not interfere with the process of self-purification, the solution proposed by Orlando is a way to cheap and clean energy. However, it should be remembered that not every city has – in this respect – such a favorable location.

Energy from water and sewage

This does not change the fact that the use of water mains for the production of electricity is an interesting innovation idea. It should be noted that the source of clean energy can be not only clean water, but also waste water. An example is even the English company Thames Water, which uses grease and organic waste from wastewater to produce fuel for a power plant.

Electricity from rainwater

It is worth emphasizing that LucidPipe is not the only idea for a hydroelectric power plant in an unusual place. A year ago, three students from the National Polytechnic University of Mexico presented their invention called Pluvia. The innovation of this solution is based on the use of a small turbine operating in the … chute. Pluvia uses rainwater to produce electricity and at the same time purifies it, making it suitable for drinking.