Gasification is the process of burning biomass fuels in a temperature range of 800 – 1500º with oxygen and water. To produce producer gas or synthesis gas.
Biomass gasification and fuel containing carbon and the use of gas as fuel in internal combustion engines is a technology that has been used for more than a century ago. There has recently been a renewed interest in this technology. Basically, as fuel use biomass instead of imported fuel oil. This interest arose during the Second World War when more than a million cars, buses, trucks, motor boats and trains – were powered by gasifiers operating on wood, charcoal or peat. After the war, however, there was a complete return to the liquid fuel, once it again became available.
Thus, the influence of biomass gasification for power system in developing countries will depend on the answer to one main question: modern technology and the development of gasification has led to improved design of gasifier and gasification system which can work reliably, efficiently, cost effectively and at the appropriate technical level.
Producer gas consists of 40% combustible gases, mainly carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and impurities. The impurities are non-combustible and consists mainly of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. The gas also contains tar and acid. These impurities can lead to problems and severe engine wear.
The process of gasification occurs in the third stage of pyrolysis. Where is coal gasification.
The received heat energy by gasification of biofuel, is converted into electrical energy. If gasification solid biofuel mixed with other organic fuels, we can significantly increase efficiency. Processing of biomass using gasification allows the use of the derived products as a fuel for all types of internal combustion engines. The use of gasification gas has no effect on engine power, however, 40 % of this fuel is more environmentally friendly.
In Ukraine is widely used gasification technology. By using recycled biomass gasifiers and other household and organic waste. In the future on the basis of gas generators can be realized and power plant and power plant.
Gasification technology has a lot of advantages:
1. this low-cost production;
2. the payback occurs over a short period of time;
3. this technology makes it possible to do low power projects;
4. the energy that is produced in this way, environmentally friendly and safe for the environment;
5. can completely replace traditional fuels;
6. waste gasification can be used in related fields (agriculture as fertilizer and in construction, as components of building materials).