Mini / micro hydropower plants – this is one of the most promising ways to develop alternative energy. The basis of its inherent use of small natural water flows.
This is a great alternative to centralized water and energy services in areas where it does not exist at all or is experiencing a constant shortage.
Definition of mini / micro hydropower plant is dependent on the power:
– Machinery and equipment up to 100 kW;
– Machinery and equipment up to 1000 kW.
Hydrogenerators have a technically complicated design compared to wind turbines and geliogeneratorami. Their work takes place in a fairly aggressive environment and the operating time is much more for the same time period.
There are four types of flow Mini / micro hydropower plants:
1. The water wheel – is a structure, half-immersed in the water and having a bladed wheel structure. It is in motion when the blade hits the water and begins to rotate. There are more expensive devices of this type, equipped with a turbine.
2. Daisy mini / micro hydropower plant – this design, which consists of a cable that attaches to the different sides of the pond. One end of the cable is connected to the bearing, and the second – a generator shaft. In rotors installed cable. The whole structure resembles a garland. The rotors on the cable immersed in water, and water flows rotate them, and they then rotated the cable by transmitting the rotation of the generator shaft. All of this design is a small dam. However, there is not very high efficiency and hide some danger to others the presence of the hidden underwater components of the design.
3. Darrieus rotor – is a complex vertical device, using it as time-consuming as well as wind energy. The principle of his work laid the difference in pressure, which is created on the blades. For this purpose, the rotor blades are made in a complex form. One of the main drawbacks is that it that it is quite a complex construction and for the beginning of his work, the rotor should be forced to run. But the use of attractive by the fact that due to the vertical axis of power does not require the collection of additional gears and can be carried out directly. Also this design work is independent of the water flow direction.
4. Propeller – a kind of underwater vertical rotor with small blades. The small size of the blades to the optimum variant significantly lower resistance, and an order of increased speed.
All kinds of small hydro electricity is produced on the same basis. The generator starts to generate electricity after the transmission is driven by the rotational energy of the turbine. And it begins to move when the blades begin to be activated by water pressure. The very same mini power capacity depends on the water pressure, which acts on the blades and flow of the same water, but also depends directly on the performance themselves directly turbines and generators.
Mini / micro power plants have many advantages:
– They are not safe for the environment;
– A mini power plant economically advantageous, because simple to perform and almost completely automated;
– For installation and efficient operation of power plants do not require the presence of large bodies of water;
– Their operation does not require any fuel;
– And it samovozobnovlyaemy energy source.